美國國家航空航天局和歐洲航天局利用哈勃望遠鏡有效地改變了科學家和公眾對宇宙的理解方式。通過太空望遠鏡將照片傳回地球,有助於研究人員以不同的方式了解星系、星雲和其他宇宙物體。哈勃太空望遠鏡拍攝的彩色星光圖像也向人們展示了太空的無限美好,這些圖片大放異彩 ,備受矚目,今天小編就先來和大家分享一些哈勃太空望遠鏡拍攝的驚人圖片吧。

哈勃太空望遠鏡拍攝的令人驚嘆的宇宙圖片

哈勃望遠鏡追逐一個叫做NGC– 4707的明亮旋渦星系。它的整體形狀、中心和螺旋臂非常鬆散且不明確,它看起來像是在黑暗的畫布上散落的星星和明亮的藍色閃光。

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Hubble Chases a Small Stellar Galaxy in the Hunting Dog On a clear evening in April of 1789, the renowned astronomer William Herschel continued his unrelenting survey of the night sky, hunting for new cosmic objects — and found cause to celebrate! He spotted this bright spiral galaxy, named NGC 4707, lurking in the constellation of Canes Venatici or The Hunting Dog. NGC 4707 lies roughly 22 million light-years from Earth. Over two centuries later, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is able to "chase down" and view the same galaxy in far greater detail than Herschel could, allowing us to appreciate the intricacies and characteristics of NGC 4707 as never before. This striking image comprises observations from Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), one of a handful of high-resolution instruments currently aboard the space telescope. Herschel himself reportedly described NGC 4707 as a “small, stellar” galaxy; while it is classified as a spiral (type Sm), its overall shape, center, and spiral arms are very loose and undefined, and its central bulge is either very small or non-existent. It instead appears as a rough sprinkling of stars and bright flashes of blue on a dark canvas. The blue smudges seen across the frame highlight regions of recent or ongoing star formation, with newborn stars glowing in bright, intense shades of cyan and turquoise. Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA

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這是一顆位於麒麟座的紅色變星V838 Monocerotis,距離太陽約2萬光年。該恆星在2002年經歷了一次爆發事件並被觀測到,爆發原因至今不明,至少有5種推測 。

哈勃太空望遠鏡捕捉到太空中五彩繽紛的節日裝飾品(下圖)。它實際上是NGC 6326的一個圖像,這是一個行星狀星雲,一股股噴發出來的氣體,被中間一顆接近其生命盡頭的恆星照亮。

當一顆恆星老化並且其生命中的紅巨星階段結束時,它開始從其表面噴射出一層層氣體,留下一顆熾熱而緊密的白矮星。有時這種噴射會產生優雅對稱的發光氣體圖案,但NGC 6326的結構要差得多。這個星雲位於離地球大約11,000光年的Ara星系。行星狀星雲是比氫和氦重的元素在恆星中心產生後散布在太空中的主要方式之一。最終,一些被甩到外面的物質可能形成新的恆星和行星。

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Hubble's Holiday Nebula “Ornament” . @NASAHubble captured what looks like a colorful holiday ornament in space. It's actually an image of NGC 6326, a planetary nebula with glowing wisps of outpouring gas that are lit up by a central star nearing the end of its life. . When a star ages and the red giant phase of its life comes to an end, it starts to eject layers of gas from its surface leaving behind a hot and compact white dwarf. Sometimes this ejection results in elegantly symmetric patterns of glowing gas, but NGC 6326 is much less structured. This object is located in the constellation of Ara, the Altar, about 11,000 light-years from Earth. Planetary nebulae are one of the main ways in which elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are dispersed into space after their creation in the hearts of stars. Eventually some of this out-flung material may form new stars and planets. . This picture was created from images taken using the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The vivid blue and red hues come from material including ionized oxygen and hydrogen glowing under the action of the fierce ultraviolet radiation from the still hot central star. . Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA #nasagoddard #space #science

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美國宇航局的科學家驚訝地發現了一個大部分暗物質缺失的古怪星系(下面視頻)。暗物質是一種看不見的物質,是星系賴以生成的基礎構架。它是將星系中的可見物質——恆星和氣體聯結在一起的膠水。

哈勃觀測的首席研究員,康涅狄格州紐黑文市耶魯大學的Pieter van Dokkum說 :“我們認為每個星系都有暗物質,星系就是從暗物質開始形成的。這種看不見的、神秘的物質是任何一個星系的最主要部分,所以發現一個沒有暗物質的星系是出乎意料的,對我們認為星系如何運作的標準看法提出了挑戰。它表明暗物質是真實的,它有它自己獨立的存在形式。這一結果也表明形成星系可能有不止一種方式。”

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NASA scientist are searching for a somewhat unusual substance, missing dark matter in an oddball galaxy. [via @NASAHubble] . Researchers were surprised when they uncovered a galaxy that is missing most, if not all, of its dark matter. An invisible substance, dark matter is the underlying scaffolding upon which galaxies are built. It's the glue that holds the visible matter in galaxies — stars and gas — together. . "We thought that every galaxy had dark matter and that dark matter is how a galaxy begins," said Pieter van Dokkum of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, lead researcher of the Hubble observations. "This invisible, mysterious substance is the most dominant aspect of any galaxy. So finding a galaxy without it is unexpected. It challenges the standard ideas of how we think galaxies work, and it shows that dark matter is real: it has its own separate existence apart from other components of galaxies. This result also suggests that there may be more than one way to form a galaxy." . Learn more: https://go.nasa.gov/2GhI6GY Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio #nasagoddard #hubble #space #science #galaxy

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這個壯觀的螺旋星系是NGC 7331,位於Pegasus(飛翼馬)星座中,距離我們大約4500萬光年。畫面中展現了它美麗的手臂,並且像漩渦一樣圍繞着明亮的中心區域旋轉。

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Next time you are 45 million light-years away in the neighboorhood of the constellation of Pegasus you might want to keep an eye out for this spectacular spiral galaxy. This @nasahubble image shows a spiral galaxy known as NGC 7331. First spotted by the prolific galaxy hunter William Herschel in 1784, NGC 7331 is located about 45 million light-years away in the constellation of Pegasus (the Winged Horse). Facing us partially edge-on, the galaxy showcases its beautiful arms, which swirl like a whirlpool around its bright central region. Astronomers took this image using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), as they were observing an extraordinary exploding star — a supernova — near the galaxy’s central yellow core. Named SN 2014C, it rapidly evolved from a supernova containing very little hydrogen to one that is hydrogen-rich — in just one year. This rarely observed metamorphosis was luminous at high energies and provides unique insight into the poorly understood final phases of massive stars. NGC 7331 is similar in size, shape and mass to the Milky Way. It also has a comparable star formation rate, hosts a similar number of stars, has a central supermassive black hole and comparable spiral arms. The primary difference between this galaxy and our own is that NGC 7331 is an unbarred spiral galaxy — it lacks a “bar” of stars, gas and dust cutting through its nucleus, as we see in the Milky Way. Its central bulge also displays a quirky and unusual rotation pattern, spinning in the opposite direction to the galactic disk itself. By studying similar galaxies we hold a scientific mirror up to our own, allowing us to build a better understanding of our galactic environment, which we cannot always observe, and of galactic behavior and evolution as a whole. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA/D. Milisavljevic (Purdue University) #nasagoddard #space #science #galaxy

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哈勃太空望遠鏡完成的重要任務

20多年來哈勃太空望遠鏡在其軌道運行過程中創造了許多令人驚嘆的宇宙圖片,但這並不是望遠鏡達成的唯一目標。哈勃太空望遠鏡收集的信息改變了人們理解宇宙的方式,那麼這麼多年來它完成了哪些重要任務呢?

1. 確定宇宙的年齡

哈勃太空望遠鏡的主要任務之一是弄清楚宇宙的年齡和大小。研究人員通過使用哈勃數據進行研究,了解到宇宙大約已形成137億年了。為了得到這個數字,科學家們用哈勃來測量造父變星(Cepheid variable stars)的亮度,然後可以估計其宿主星系與地球的距離。

造父變星變光的光度和脈動周期有着非常強的直接關聯性,是建立銀河和河外星系距離標尺的可靠且重要的標準燭光。

2. 看到早期宇宙中的星系

1995年,任務控制人員導引哈勃太空望遠鏡拍攝一系列圖像,觀察天空中的一個小點,結果令人驚訝。這一系列圖像顯示出成千上萬的星系,並迅速成為哈勃最具標誌性的宇宙觀測之一,被稱為哈勃的第一個深度區域。宇航員對哈勃的照相機進行了多次更新換代 ,使哈勃能夠繼續拍攝宇宙深處的圖像,據此,科學家可以探索宇宙中星星形成的歷史。

Hubble views Pandora’s Box and sees thousands of galaxies swimming in the inky blackness of space…Peering deep into…

Posted by NASA Goddard on Friday, March 11, 2016

3. 了解其他星球上的季節

科學家也能夠利用哈勃望遠鏡觀察行星上的季節變化。例如,用哈勃追蹤木星的天氣,讓研究人員能夠看到巨大氣層中雲帶的顏色變化。

1994年,當蘇梅克 – 列維9號彗星(Shoemaker-Levy 9)撞擊木星時,哈勃給人們提供了彗星撞擊另一個行星體的驚人畫面。

4. 太陽系外行星科學

哈勃太空望遠鏡在可見光下拍攝到一顆巨大行星的第一張圖像。這顆名為Fomalhaut b的大行星大約是木星的三倍大。當太陽系外行星經過它們環繞運行的恆星面對地球的表面時,哈勃望遠鏡能夠看到這些行星的大氣,望遠鏡還可以在一顆行星運行到它的恆星背後時,收集這顆行星和它的大氣的有價值的數據。

*gogblog* fun fact update from the National Capital Area Disks meeting here today: Goddard exoplanet scientist Brian…

Posted by NASA Goddard on Friday, July 2, 2010

 

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